Oil and Energy
Petroleum is formed by hydrocarbons and it is a complex mixture of organic liquids called Crude Oil and natural gas, which occurs naturally in the ground. Crude oil varies from oilfield to oilfield in colour and composition, can be clear, green or black and may be either thin like gasoline or heavy black like tar. Crude oil is extracted from the ground, land or the see bed, by drilling an oil well from where it is transported by pipeline and/or ship to refineries where their components are processed into various refined products. Fuel Oil is obtained from petroleum distillation as a distillate or a residue. Fuel oil can be classified as any liquid petroleum product that is used for burning in a furnace or boiler for the purpose of heat generation or power generation. Heating Oil is also a liquid product derived from petroleum distillation as a by-product of crude oil and is used to fuel furnaces in homes or buildings and it is delivered by tanker trucks. Petroleum, along with oil and coal, is classified as a fossil fuel. Coal the most abundant fossil fuel is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Coal is an affordable source of energy and it is very important commodity in meeting the demand for a secure energy supply; over 40% of the global electricity production is based on coal.